Robotics: Science and Systems VII

Comparing Heads-up, Hands-free Operation of Ground Robots to Teleoperation

Matthew Marge, Aaron Powers, Jonathan Brookshire, Trevor Jay, Odest Jenkins, Christopher Geyer


Today, most commercially available UGVs use teleoperation for control. Under teleoperation, users' hands are occupied holding a handheld controller to operate the UGV, and their attention is focused on what the robot is doing. In this paper, we propose an alternative called Heads-up, Hands-free Operation, which allows an operator to control a UGV using operator following behaviors and a gesture interface. We explore whether Heads-up, Hands-free Operation is an improvement over teleoperation. In a study of 30 participants, we found that when operators used these modes of interaction, they performed missions faster, they could recall their surroundings better, and they had a lower cognitive load than they did when they teleoperated the robot.



    AUTHOR    = {Matthew Marge AND Aaron Powers AND  Jonathan Brookshire AND Trevor Jay AND Odest Jenkins AND Christopher Geyer}, 
    TITLE     = {Comparing Heads-up, Hands-free Operation of Ground Robots to Teleoperation}, 
    BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems}, 
    YEAR      = {2011}, 
    ADDRESS   = {Los Angeles, CA, USA}, 
    MONTH     = {June},
    DOI       = {10.15607/RSS.2011.VII.027}